Al Sayed Musa al-Sadr (1928-disappeared in 1978) ( السيد موسى الصدر) , also Musā-ye Sader and Moussa Sadr), was a philosopher and Shiah religious leader who disappeared in August 1978.
Musa al-Sadr was born in Qom, Iran on March 15, 1928 to the prominent Lebanese As-sadr family of theologians. His father was Ayatollah Sadr Ad-Din As-Sadr, originally from Tyre. Grand Ayatollah Muhammad Baqir As-Sadr is a distant cousin.
Musa Al-Sadr attended his primary school in his hometown and then moved to the Iranian capital Tehran where he got in 1956 a degree in Islamic Jurisprudence (Fiqh) and Political Sciences from Tehran University. Then he moved back to Qom to study Theology and Islamic philosophy under Allamah Muhammad Husain Tabtabai. He then edited a magazine called Maktab-e Eslām in Qom. Eventually he left Qom for Najaf to study theology under Ayatollah Muhsin al-Hakim and Abu-LQasim Khui.
Activities in Lebanon
The As-Sadr family was originally from Lebanon, and in 1960 Musa as-Sadr accepted an invitation to become the leading Shi'i figure in the city of Tyre. As-Sadr, who became known as Imam Musa, quickly became one of the most prominent advocates for the Shī‘ah population of Lebanon, a group that was both economically and politically disadvantaged. He is said to have worked tirelessly to improve the lot of his community - to give them a voice, to protect them from the ravages of war and intercommunal strife ..
Aṣ-Sadr was widely seen as a moderate, demanding that the Maronite Christians relinquish some of their power but pursuing ecumenism and peaceful relations between the groups. He was a vocal opponent of Israel but also attacked the PLO (Palestine Liberation Organization) for endangering Lebanese civilians with their attacks.
In 1969, Imam Musa was appointed as the first head of the Supreme Islamic Shiite Council (SISC), ( المجلس الإسلامي الشيعي الأعلى) an entity meant to give the Shī‘ah more say in government. For the next four years, he engaged the leadership of the Syrian 'Alawis' (Alaweyenn) in an attempt to unify their political power with that of the Twelver Shiah. Though controversial, recognition of the ‘Alawī as Shī‘ah coreligionists came in July 1973 when he and the ‘Alawī religious leadership successfully appointed an ‘Alawī as an official mufti to the Twelver community.
In 1974 he founded the Movement of the Disinherited (حركة المحرومين) to press for better economic and social conditions for the Shī‘ah. He established a number of schools and medical clinics throughout southern Lebanon, many of which are still in operation today. Aṣ-Ṣadr attempted to prevent the descent into violence that eventually led to the Lebanese Civil War, but was ineffective. In the war, he at first aligned himself with the Lebanese National Movement, and the Movement of the Disinherited developed an armed wing known as Afwaj al-Muqawma al-Lubnaniyyah (أفواج المقاومة اللبنانية), better known as Amal (أمل). However, in 1976 he withdrew his support after the Syrian invasion on the side of the Lebanese Front.
In August 1978, al-Sadr and two companions Sheikh Muhammad Yaacoub and journalist Abbas Badreddine departed for Libya to meet with government officials. The three were never heard from again. It is widely believed that the Libyan leader Muammad Al-Gaddafi ordered as-Sadr's killing, but the motivation is unknown. Libya has consistently denied responsibility, claiming that as-Sadr and his companions left Libya for Italy. Sadr's son claimed that he remains secretly in jail in Libya but did not provide proof. Aṣ-Ṣadr's disappearance continues to be a major dispute between Lebanon and Libya. Lebanese Parliament Speaker Nabih Berri claimed that the Libyan regime, and particularly the Libyan leader, were responsible for the disappearance of Imam Musa Sadr, London-based Asharq Al-Awsat, a Saudi-run pan-Arab daily reported on 27 August 2006.
According to Iranian General Mansour Qadar, the head of Syrian security, Rifaat Al-Assad, told the Iranian ambassador to Syria that Gaddafi was planning to kill aṣ-Ṣadr. On August 27, 2008, Gaddafi was indicted by the government of Lebanon for al-Sadr's disappearance.
After his disappearance on August 31 as-Sadr became viewed as a spiritual leader of the Lebanese Shī‘ah, a martyr, and "vanished imam." It is said a tribute to his popularity is that it is popular in parts of Lebanon to mimic his Persian accent. The Amal Party remains an important Shī‘ah organization and looks to aṣ-Ṣadr as its founder.
In February 1982, a Kuwait Airways flight, KU561 from Kuwait to Libya via Beirut on the return was hijacked on the ground at Beirut airport in Beirut in Lebanon by Hamza akl Hamieh demanding news and release of Imam Musa al Sadr, who had disappeared in Libya in 1978.
Aṣ-Ṣadr is most famous for his political role, but he was also a philosopher. As Professor Seyyed Hossein Nasr said,
||His great political influence and fame was enough for people to not consider his philosophical attitude, although he was a well-trained follower of long living intellectual tradition of Islamic Philosophy.
One of his famous writings is a long introduction for the Arabic translation of Henry Corbin's History of Islamic Philosophy. Mūsá aṣ-Ṣadr's niece is married to Mohammad Khatami, former President of Iran.
This article incorporates text from the Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.